Self-Adjusting Binary Search Trees(1985)August 12, 2023
The splay tree, a self-adjusting form of a binary search tree, is a binary search tree that moves an accessed node to the root after each access. On an \(n\)-node splay tree, accessing, inserting and deleting have an amortized time bound of \(O(\log n)\) per operation. In addition, for sufficiently long access sequences, splay trees are as efficient, to within a constant factor, as static optimum search trees.
Splaying is a restructuring heuristic that moves the accessed item to the root after each access on the assumption that the item is likely to be accessed again soon. If we want to splay a tree at a node \(x\) and \(p(x)\), the parent of x, is the root, rotate the edge joining \(x\) with \(p(x)\)(Figure a). If \(p(x)\) is not the root and \(x\) and \(p(x)\) are both left or both right children, rotate the edge joining \(p(x)\) with its grandparent and then rotate the edge joining \(x\) with p(x)(Figure b). If \(p\) is not the root and \(x\) is a left child and \(p(x)\) a right child, or vice versa, rotate the edge joining \(x\) with \(p(x)\) and then rotate the edge joining \(x\) with the new \(p(x)\).
We can implement the insertion, join, and deletion using splaying. To carry out \(insert(i, t)\), inserting item \(i\) in a tree \(t\), we search for \(i\), then replace the pointer to null reached during the search by a pointer to a new node containing \(i\), and finally splay the tree at the new node. \(join(t_1, t_2)\) is combining trees \(t_1\) and \(t_2\) into a single tree. This operation assumes that all items in \(t_1\) are less than all those in \(t_2\). To carry out \(join(t_1, t_2)\), we move the largest, say \(i\) , in \(t_1\) to the root by splaying at \(i\). After the access, the root of \(t_1\) contains \(i\) and thus has a null right child. We finally make \(t_2\) the right subtree of the root. To carry out \(delete(i, t)\), we search for the node containing \(i\), say \(x\), and let its parent be \(y\). We replace \(x\) as a child of \(y\) by the join of the left and right subtrees of \(x\), and then we splay at \(y\). The following figure illustrates insertion of 80 followed by deletion of 30.
The figures were cited from the paper.